GeneveOS Device Operation

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Accessing devices (floppy disk, hard disk, serial connector, printer) is possible in GeneveOS via XOP calls.

User-task XOPs

User-task XOPs are available for use in application programs. Here is a typical example:

PABADD EQU  >F180   
FILE   DATA 8
...
       LI   R0,PABADD
       XOP  @FILE,0
       MOVB @PABADD+2,R0
       JNE  ERROR
       ...

Similar as with the TI-99/4A device service routine concept (DSR), a Peripheral Access Block (PAB) must be set up prior to invoking the XOP.

Device Service Routine Call

Input Output
R0 Pointer to PAB -

The actual operation is contained in the Peripheral Access Block (PAB).

Peripheral Access Block

While the TI-99/4A DSRs expect the PAB to be stored in VDP RAM, the Geneve OS DSRs use CPU RAM for the PAB, which means the PAB need not be copied to the video RAM before use. Also, you can choose to have the I/O buffers in VDP or CPU RAM.

The general layout of the PAB is as follows:

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 ...
Opcode Mode Error code Buffer address Record number Record length Memory type Character count Status byte Name length Name

Note that the buffer addresses are 21-bit wide, represented by the virtual address within the calling task. The address for this buffer should be derived from memory allocation operations that were invoked earlier.

After the operation, the PAB contains information about the results of the operation.

Mode

The mode bits are used to determine the operation direction (in/out/update/append), the encoding (display/internal), the structure (fixed/variable) and the access (sequential/relative).

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Unused (000) Fixed=0 Display=0 Update=00 Sequential=0
Output=01
Variable=1 Internal=1 Input=10 Relative=1
Append=11


Error code

The error code is an eight bit word with the following structure:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Number Detail code for error 7
Number Meaning
0 No such device
1 Write-protected
2 Illegal open attribute
3 Illegal operation
4 Out of buffer space
5 Read beyond EOF
6 Device error
7 File error

Operations

OPEN

Open a record-oriented file. A file must be opened before it can be read from or written to. This operation is not required for flat memory image files.

The PAB must be set up prior to invoking the operation:

IN

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 ...
00 Mode - - Records to reserve Record length - - - Name length Name

Open new file: The Record Length must be set to a value greater than 0. This will become the length of the records of the new file.

Open existing file: The Record Length must match the length of the records. If the length is unknown, 0 may be passed.

After the OPEN operation has completed, the PAB delivers information about the result:

OUT

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 ...
- - Error code - - Actual Record Length - 0 True Record Length - Name length Name

The Actual Record Length is the length of the records of the existing file. When 0 was passed on the call, this delivers the record length of the file; otherwise this is the value that was passed for the call. The True Record Length is the record length of the file when it already exists.

CLOSE

Closes a record-oriented file. A file must be closed after being used. After closing, no further read or write operations may be invoked on the file. This operation is not required for flat memory image files.

The PAB must be set up prior to invoking the operation:

IN

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 ...
01 Mode - - - - - - - Name length Name

After the CLOSE operation has completed, the PAB delivers information about the result:

OUT

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 ...
- - Error code - - - - - - Name length Name

READ

Reads a record from a record-oriented file. For flat memory image files, LOAD must be used.

IN

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 ...
02 Mode - Buffer address Record number Record length Memory - - Name length Name

Use the Record number field to specify the desired record in fixed record length files. This is not available for variable length record files.

The Record Length must match the length of the records as specified by OPEN.

The Memory flag determines whether the data are read into CPU (0) or VDP (not 0) memory.

After the READ operation has completed, the PAB delivers information about the result:

OUT

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 ...
- - Error code - Next record number - - Number of read bytes - Name length Name

Next record number applies for fixed record length files only.

WRITE

Writes a record to a record-oriented file. For flat memory image files, SAVE must be used.

IN

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 ...
03 Mode - Buffer address Record number Record length Memory Number of bytes to write - Name length Name

Use the Record number field to specify the desired record in fixed record length files. This is not available for variable length record files.

The Record Length must match the length of the records as specified by OPEN.

The Memory flag determines whether the data written from CPU (0) or VDP (not 0) memory.

After the WRITE operation has completed, the PAB delivers information about the result:

OUT

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 ...
- - Error code - Next record number - - Number of read bytes - Name length Name

Next record number applies for fixed record length files only.

RESTORE

LOAD

SAVE

DELETE

SCRATCH

STATUS

BREAD

BWRITE

Writes a sector to a file or to a device. This is a level-2 operation, that is, it accesses the device based on sector addressing (or sectors of a file). BWRITE allows for three operations:

  • Create a new, empty file.
  • Write sectors to a file.
  • Write sectors to a device.

IN

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 ...
0B - - Buffer address Sector offset - - Number of sectors - Name length Name

Create a file: When a file is addressed, and the number of sectors is 0, a new file is created. The contents of the file should be written by BWRITE on the same file with a sector count greater than 0.

Write to file: When a file is addressed, the operation writes a sequence of sectors to the file. The Sector offset is the number of the first sector of the file, counting from 0. The physical locations of the sectors are subject to the sector allocation on the device; in particular, when fragmentation is required, the sectors are written to the new fragment.

Writing to device: When a device is addressed, the operation writes a sequence of sectors to the device. The Sector offset is the physical sector number.

After the BWRITE operation has completed, the PAB delivers information about the result:

OUT

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 ...
- - Error code Updated buffer address Next unwritten sector - - 0 Number of unwritten sectors - Name length Name

The Updated buffer address points to the memory address after the sectors were written (e.g. when 4 sectors are written, the pointer is increased by 4*256 = 1024).

The Next unwritten sector is the first sector that has not been written due to an error condition.

The Number of unwritten sectors is the number of unwritten sectors due to an error condition.

Unless you want to write directly to the device, make sure that the PAB contains a file name that points to a file, not to a device. For example, when the file name has been created by the program, and for some reason the file name is empty (like "HDS1."), the following write operation will overwrite the volume information block and the allocation tables and destroy the target device filesystem.

Tick here: [ ] Yes, I fully understood the danger of this operation.

(The author lost a complete hard disk by this incident, and was lucky to have a backup.)

PROTECT

RENAME

FORMAT